Archive for September, 2013

Those “illegal job interview questions” aren’t actually illegal

September 22, 2013

It’s common knowledge that it’s illegal for US employers to ask about your age, sex, religion, marital status, national origin, or other protected statuses. Thing is, it’s not illegal for them to ask.  It’s illegal for them to discriminate, but it’s not illegal to ask. Still, the idea of the “illegal interview questions” is a common one. Search for “illegal interview questions” on Google and you’ll get 50,000 hits. Lots of blog posts and news articles, but nothing from anyone I see as a legal authority.

I’m certainly not a lawyer, but I feel confident in quoting the US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission’s website for this (emphasis mine):

As a general rule, the information obtained and requested through the pre-employment process should be limited to those essential for determining if a person is qualified for the job; whereas, information regarding race, sex, national origin, age, and religion are irrelevant in such determinations.

Employers are explicitly prohibited from making pre-employment inquiries about disability.

Although state and federal equal opportunity laws do not clearly forbid employers from making pre-employment inquiries that relate to, or disproportionately screen out members based on race, color, sex, national origin, religion, or age, such inquiries may be used as evidence of an employer’s intent to discriminate unless the questions asked can be justified by some business purpose.

Short version: It’s not illegal to ask those questions, but it’s stupid to do so because it gives the candidate ammo to use in a lawsuit against you.

I think it’s an important distinction. I read plenty of comments on reddit and the like where people seem to think that being asked about their marital status is somehow going to get them a job because that’s an illegal question. It’s not. Other than feeding one’s sense of righteous indignation, there’s not much that will probably come out of being asked an “illegal question.” There has to be a lawsuit for anything to come of it, which means you need to find a lawyer who thinks that you can win a discrimination suit, because the lawyer will be able to prove discrimination.

The key is that you have to prove that you were discriminated against. Simply saying “They asked me an illegal question” isn’t enough. Here’s what a random employment law firm’s website says:

An employee in an employment discrimination and wrongful termination case must prove that the reason he or she was fired, or not hired or not promoted, is because of his or her “protected classification.” In other words, you have to prove that you were denied employment or a promotion because of your race, gender, ethnic background, age or other discriminatory factor.

It’s also important to know that in addition to the Federal laws, you may have rights in other states. For example, some states forbid discrimination based on sexual orientation, while many others do not (yet). Search Google for “discrimination laws [your state]” and you should get hits for your state’s government agency that covers this topic.

None of this is to endorse employers asking such questions. A good employer shouldn’t ask you any questions that aren’t related to the job.

What to do if you’re asked a question that gets at something discriminatory? Check out this article on how to handle bad interview questions.

The simple math of why your resume probably isn’t getting read.

September 13, 2013

You spend hours slaving over your resume, crafting every word of every bullet point, and yet you’re getting no interest from the companies you send the resume to.  Maybe your problem is that you’re ignoring the most important part of your resume: The first half-page, or the first screenful.

Let’s do some simple math here.  Last time I posted job ads for programmers I was getting 300-400 responses per ad, so let’s say conservatively that a job posting nets a hiring manager 250 resumes. If he spends 10 minutes on each resume, examining each in detail, that comes out to:

250 resumes x 10 mins/resume  = 2500 minutes = 41.2 hours

That’s one entire work week doing absolutely nothing but reading those resumes 8 hours a day.  That’s not going to happen.

Much more realistic is for the reader to spend maybe a minute on each resume determining which ones are obviously crap, and which ones have potential and get put aside into a pile for closer consideration.

250 resumes x 1 min/resume  = 250 minutes = 4 hours

That’s much more manageable.  Now the hiring manager is able to set aside the 5-10% of the resumes that are not clearly garbage, or shotgunned to everyone, or from offshore consulting firms offering their services.

So you have at most a minute of actual reading time, max.  I’ve seen the claim of 10-20 seconds per resume commonly cited, too.

What does this mean to you, the resume writer?

Nobody is going to read past the first half-page of your resume unless you give them a reason to read the rest.

Think of the top half of your resume as a movie trailer, a teaser for what’s in the rest of the movie.  You want that top half-page to put all the best about you out front.   You’re going to start with a summary of what’s to follow, such as:

  • Six years experience system administration for 20-30 Linux and Windows servers.
  • Fully certified as both Red Hat Something Something and Windows Certified Blah Blah.
  • Extensive experience with backup strategies to physical media and offsite solutions.

In three lines, you’ve summarized who you are and given the reader reason to read the rest.  Yes, it is redundant to what’s in the rest of the resume, but that’s OK, because (and I know I’m repeating myself) nobody is going to read your entire resume unless they have a reason to.

The top half-page of your resume is so crucial it’s why an objective is absolutely the worst way to start a resume.  Consider a typical resume objective:

JOB TARGET: My goal is to become associated with a company where I can utilize my skills and gain further experience while enhancing the company’s productivity and reputation.

There is absolutely nothing in that to make the reader want to read further. Everything is about what the writer wants, not what she can bring to the company. That resume is bound for the reject folder.

You have less than half a minute to convince the reader to read your entire resume.  Make the first part of your resume tell all the important stuff, and only the important stuff.